POMC (proopiomelanocortin) is a precursor polypeptide that is synthesized in the pituitary and cleaved to give rise to multiple peptide hormones. The precursor is a 285 amino acid sequence (pre-POMC), from which a 44 aino acid signal peptide is removed during translation to make POMC. POMC is then cleaved to give rise to various peptide hormones, including the following: alpha MSH, which regulates the production of melanin, ACTH from the adrenal cortex, lipotrophins, Beta endorphin and metenkephalin. The proteases that recognize these cleavage sites are tissue specific. POMC is synthesized by the following cell types: corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary, melanotrophs of the intermediate lobe of the pituitary, neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and brainstem, and melanocytes in the skin.
References: EMBO Reports 2012, 13 (12):1079; Gen Compar Endocrinology 2014, 195:107; Entrez Gene 2019, Gene ID:5443