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In muscle physiology, plays a central role in the balance between atrophy and hypertrophy. When recruited by MSTN, promotes atrophy response via phosphorylated SMAD2/4. MSTN decrease causes SMAD4 release and subsequent recruitment by the BMP pathway to promote hypertrophy via phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8. Acts synergistically with SMAD1 and YY1 in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated cardiac-specific gene expression. Binds to SMAD binding elements (SBEs) (5'-GTCT/AGAC-3') within BMP response element (BMPRE) of cardiac activating regions (By similarity). Common SMAD (co-SMAD) is the coactivator and mediator of signal transduction by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor). Component of the heterotrimeric SMAD2/SMAD3-SMAD4 complex that forms in the nucleus and is required for the TGF-mediated signaling. Promotes binding of the SMAD2/SMAD4/FAST-1 complex to DNA and provides an activation function required for SMAD1 or SMAD2 to stimulate transcription. Component of the multimeric SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex which forms at the AP1 promoter site; required for syngernistic transcriptional activity in response to TGF-beta. May act as a tumor suppressor. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.
|Gene Name:||SMAD family member 4|
|Synonyms:||SMAD4, DPC4, HSMAD4, MYHRS, SMAD 4, MAD homolog 4, SMAD family member 4, JIP, MADH4, Mothers against DPP homolog 4|
|Target Sequences:||NM_005359 NP_005350.1 Q13485|
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