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Immunohistochemistry Services

Work with LifeSpan to design a custom immunohistochemistry to address your specific biological question. Outsource the entire localization process without having to worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies.

TCR Screening Services

Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding. Our non-GLP TCR services are designed on the FDA recommendation outlined in their "Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use".

Research Areas
Cell Cycle Pathways
Protein Family And Group
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LSBio
2401 Fourth Avenue Suite 900
Seattle WA 98121
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206-374-1102 (International)
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About BioChain

Founded in 1994, BioChain is headquartered in the San Francisco Bay Area.

BioChain is the world leader in high quality processed bio-sample products and analysis services used in advancing translational medicine, companion diagnostics, and clinical product research and development. BioChain’s products are available for DNA and RNA sequencing, PCR and RT-PCR, gene expression analysis, DNA and RNA purification, protein extraction and purification, and protein expression analysis. BioChain’s One-Stop Services for Next Generation Sequencing, from clinical sample collection, sample preparation, sequencing to bioinformatics analysis, will revolutionize the industry.

In addition to a world-class bio-specimen and sample preparation line of business, BioChain is moving into the clinical applications that offer clinical genomics diagnostics products and clinical trial services in cancer and reproductive health. BioChain is committed to achieving the Highest Quality products and services at highly competitive prices through Continuous Process Improvement Initiatives. BioChain established a comprehensive quality assurance program to meet customers’ satisfactions as well as maintaining both ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 13485:2003 certifications for in house production facilities.

BioChain Statement of Compliance

As a responsible player in the life science and healthcare product manufacturing and services industry, BioChain adheres to various regulations that govern their quality operations and processes. BioChain’s laboratory is compliant to the OSHA and BioSafety Level II standards. Its manufacturing facility is an ISO 9001:2015 quality system. Its sample collection and handling process conforms to GCP regulations with the IRB process and informed patient consent forms being required for each sample. BioChain is building the next level of compliance into its facilities and processes as it continues to move towards clinical diagnostic application development.

BioChain Tissue Products

BioChain offers an extensive and unique collection of FFPE tissue sections, panels, and arrays from normal, diseased, and tumor tissue types. One of BioChain’s most valued asset is its large selection of hard-to-find diseased tissues, such as the matched pairs of tumor tissues (i.e. primary tumors matched with adjacent normal tissues or metastatic tumor tissues), which are invaluable tools for discovery research and diagnostic product development.

BioChain DNA Products

BioChain provides a spectrum of DNA products that are derived from various organ systems and tissues of the human body with different developmental stages and disease conditions, including hard-to-find samples. DNA materials extracted from different species of plants and animals are also available.

BioChain RNA Products

BioChain provides RNA products that are used for various genomic researches, such as gene expression, microarray, transcriptomics, and RNA sequencing. BioChain offers high quality and well-defined RNA products based on its unique tissue collection.


BioChain FFPE Tissue Sections

Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue sections also known as paraffin tissue sections are an ideal way for rapidly determining the cellular localization of DNA, RNA, and protein markers. This is a pertinent step for investigating and validating biological targets and their relevance in diagnostics or drug development.

BioChain’s paraffin tissue sections have been meticulously selected and identified by a board licensed pathologist and are based on the sample repository network established by the IRB-approved ethical standard and procedures. Their paraffin tissue sections have been fixed in formalin after being excised, sectioned at 5 µm thickness, and mounted on positively charged glass slides. BioChain’s repository covers a wide variety of species and diseases including human (adult and fetal) normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, as well as mouse, rat, and monkey tissues.

Features

  • Tissue from a wide variety of difficult to obtain tissue sources
  • Suitable for both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays
  • Multiple tissues or single tissue per slide
  • Documentation of tissues' clinical histories available

Applications

  • Cellular localization of tissue specific mRNA and protein expression
  • In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and in situ PCR application
  • Comparison of the locations of novel genes in different tissues
  • FFPE DNA and RNA isolation
  • Antibody validation

Quality Control

At least one of the tissue slides from each lot was stained with H & E to ensure its quality.


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BioChain NGS Characterized FFPE Tissue Sections

BioChain’s CancerSeq™ formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are tumor tissues that have been prescreened extensively for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, and deletions (indels), and copy number variations (CNVs). Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), using cancer gene panels, was performed to identify mutations and mutational hotspots. These tissues are ideal for verification, genotyping, or identification of new mutational hotspots.

The advantage of using real tumor tissues versus genetically engineered tumor cell lines, is that the tissues are far more representative of real clinical disease. Cancer cell lines or genetically altered cell lines have been used widely for in vitro tumor models, but these possess only a small proportion of the genetic variances seen in tumor tissues. Actual tumors generally carry multiple mutations instead of just one or two. Numerous studies have pointed out the striking genetic differences between cell lines and tumor samples by comparing microarrays, copy number changes, mutations, and mRNA expression profiles 1-5.

Briefly, genomic DNA was extracted from the FFPE tissues and validated by targeted NGS with either Illumina’s TruSeq Amplicon - Cancer Panel (TSACP) or ArcherDX’s VariantPlex Solid Tumor Panel which include 48 or 67 cancer-related genes. Pre-screened tissues come with detailed information regarding donor and cancer type, as well as NGS information such as chromosomal position, variant type (SNP or indel), alternate allele variations, quality score, depth of coverage, allele type, transcript ID and more. BioChain offers the pre-screened tissue as mounted sections or curls.

  • CancerSeq™: Screened by NGS for SNPs, indels with 48 Cancer Gene Panel.
  • CancerSeq™ Plus: Screened by NGS for CNVs, SNPs, indels with 67 Cancer Gene Panel.

Features

  • Deep sequencing by NGS with high coverage
  • FFPE curls or slides available
  • Documentation of the tissue donor's clinical histories is available
  • Information regarding tumor type is available
  • Complete NGS sequencing data available

Applications

  • Validation of cancer marker mutation related drug candidates
  • Controls or verification for genotyping
  • Companion diagnostic assay development
  • Suitable for both IHC and In situ hybridization assays
  • Cellular localization of tissue specific mRNA and protein expression
  • Isolation of DNA and RNA with specific mutation profiles

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BioChain FFPE Tissue Panels

BioChain’s human adult normal multiple tissue panels are designed for studying the tissue specific cellular localization of genes or proteins of interest in different human normal tissues. Tissues mounted on positively charged glass slides are organized either by organs (major organ multiple tissue panels), or by integrated major systems (organ systems multiple tissue panels).


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BioChain FFPE Tissue Arrays

As it can be expensive and time-consuming to perform histology tests on multiple cancerous and normal FFPE tissue array slides, BioChain produces a wide variety of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue arrays and tissue microarrays (TMAs). These are useful tools that can be used for the validation of biological targets, and evaluation of their potential clinical relevance in the development of diagnostics or therapeutics.

Each array or TMA contains dozens of tissue cores fixed to the same positively charged slide. These cores can come from a selection of normal tissues, or from a selection of pathologically relevant cancer tumors, of different stages, from multiple donors. In addition to human tissue products, some arrays and microarrays include cores from FFPE tissues harvested from the same organs from multiple species, or from multiple organs from the same non-human species.

BioChain’s FFPE tissue arrays allow for histological analyses of multiple cancerous tissues on a single slide, or in some cases two slides - saving time and preserving expensive reagents. They can also be used to study new protein, DNA and RNA markers, and disease related genes. Therefore, FFPE tissue arrays provide high-throughput platforms for the rapid investigation of biomarkers associated with oncology, diagnosis, and disease therapeutics.

Features

  • Manufactured using high quality tissue cores
  • Suitable for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry
  • Ready-to-use
  • Both radioactive and non-radioactive detection
  • Corresponding RNA, DNA, cDNA, or protein available
  • Broad coverage of tissue types

Applications

  • Antibody characterization
  • Biomarker screening
  • Drug discovery and target validation
  • Companion diagnostics development
  • Gene and protein expression analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and In situ hybridization (ISH)

Quality Control

At least one of the tissue slides from each lot was stained with H & E to ensure its quality.

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BioChain First-Strand cDNAs

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from an RNA template. Total RNA isolation is performed by using modified guanidine thiocyanate techniques, which ensure consistency. BioChain’s Total RNA sources originate from a wide variety of human tissues such as: human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, as well as mouse, rat, monkey, and plant tissues.

After RNA isolation, first strand cDNA is synthesized with MMLV reverse transcriptase with low RNase H activity. BioChain’s cDNA can be directly used as a template for r polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time PCR. It is also ideal for gene discovery or gene expression analysis.

BioChain carries the largest selection of tissue cDNA in the research market, which includes human cDNA and tumor cDNA.

Features

  • Ready to use for PCR
  • Oligo dT primer used to ensure the presence of the entire 3' end of cDNA
  • 12 kb PCR amplicon has been successfully obtained with some templates indicating intact cDNAs
  • The largest selection of cDNAs from different tissues on the market
  • Documentation of tissues' clinical histories available

Applications

  • Immediate PCR amplification of known genes
  • Verification of genetic mutation
  • Comparison of a specific gene between different tissues
  • Analysis of mRNA alternative splicing
  • Gene cloning and target sequencing

Quality Control

  • The integrity of the RNA used for cDNA synthesis is examined by visual inspection for the presence of intact bands of 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA when electrophoreses on a denaturing agarose gel.
  • The quality and purity of total RNA were tested by spectrophotometer. A260/280 is between 1.8 and 2.0 (detected in 10 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.5). The ratio of 28S/18S is ≥ 1.
  • The RNA used for cDNA synthesis is treated by DNase I, and is tested as DNA-free RNA by PCR.
  • The synthesized human, animal, and cell line cDNA was selected to ensure its full length. The cDNA was used as template for PCR amplification of ß-actin gene and an 838 bp ß-actin band was visualized on 1% agarose gel. ß-actin control primer is included. It is enough for 10 PCR reactions.
  • The synthesized plant cDNA was used as template for PCR amplification of chloroplast gene. A 458 bp chloroplast band was visualized on 1% agarose gel. Chloroplast control primer is included. It is enough for 10 PCR reactions.
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BioChain Matched Pair First-Strand cDNAs

Matched Pair cDNAs are first-strand cDNAs that have been generated from human tumors and the corresponding normal tissues of the same donor. BioChain offers Primary Pair (PP), as well as Primary and Metastatic Pair (PM) products. Primary Pair cDNAs are those that have been isolated from primary tumors and their adjacent unaffected normal tissue. Primary Metastatic Pair cDNAs have been isolated from primary tumors and their corresponding metastatic tumors. BioChain’s Matched Pair cDNA is prepared from premium RNA that is free of genomic DNA to ensure high quality. This product is a useful tool for accelerating gene expression analysis by identifying tumor-specific genes and tumor metastatic genes.

Features

  • Ready to use for PCR quantification of gene expression
  • Identification of tissue-specific expression of target genes
  • Analysis of gene expression in rare tissues
  • Verification of genetic mutation
  • Comparison of a specific gene between different tissues

Applications

  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
  • Immunofluorescence (IF)
  • In-situ hybridization (ISH)
  • Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH)
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BioChain Genomic DNA

BioChain's genomic DNA gives researchers easy access to high quality material, isolated from a comprehensive, well-documented tissue bank. BioChain has been isolating genomic DNA for over 20 years and is expert at both purifying DNA from myriad tissue types and at sourcing high quality, well documented, accurately identified starting materials. BioChain’s genomic DNAs are ready to use for SNP analysis, DNA methylation studies, copy number variation (CNV) analysis, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), Southern Blotting, next generation sequencing, and PCR.

BioChain’s genomic DNA comes from many different sources, including over 100 different human normal tissues, as well as samples from diseased organs and tumors. BioChain also offers mouse, rat, monkey, and plant materials.

Features

  • Genomic DNA isolated from almost any tissue of human, animal, and plants
  • Decontamination of polysaccharide and proteoglycan
  • Male and female control genomic DNAs from humans and various animal species
  • FFPE DNAs from various sources
  • Extensive quality control procedures ensure high quality genomic DNA
  • High efficiency in PCR
  • Documentation of tissues' clinical histories available

Applications

  • SNP analysis, Southern Blotting, and PCR
  • Genomic DNA methylation study
  • Copy number variation (CNV) study
  • Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) study
  • Genomic DNA library construction
  • Profiling study in gene expression

Quality Control

  • The quality and purity of genomic DNA were tested by spectrophotometer and electrophoresis
  • A260/280 is between 1.8 and 2.0 (detected in 10 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.5)
  • Plant genomic DNA concentration is determined by pico green measurement while other genomic DNA concentration is determined by UV260 measurement
  • RNase treatment to ensure the RNA contamination is eliminated
  • Hind III digestion test: genomic DNA was successfully digested by Hind III
  • ß-actin expression was tested by PCR amplification for genomic DNA or PCR ready genomic DNA
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BioChain Matched Pair Genomic DNA

BioChain's human genomic DNA matched pair products include: Primary Pairs (PP) and Primary and Metastatic Pairs (PM). PP consists of genomic DNAs isolated from a primary tumor and its adjacent normal tissue, while PM consists of genomic DNAs from a primary tumor and its corresponding metastatic tumor. Genomic DNAs in each pair are prepared from the same donor. This product line is designed for identifying tumor-specific genes and tumor metastatic genes.

Features

  • Collected under ethical guidelines using strict IRB-approved protocols from accredited medical institutions
  • Genomic DNA isolated from a wide variety of rare tissues
  • Extensive quality control procedures ensure high quality genomic DNA
  • High efficiency in PCR
  • Documentation of clinical histories
  • Freshly cut prior to shipment

Applications

  • SNP analysis
  • Southern Blot
  • PCR Genomic DNA library construction
  • Gene expression profiling

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BioChain Total RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is vital to the functioning of life. It is present in every cell in the body and has nearly limitless functions – from carrying genetic information, to the production of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA extraction is a process that must be handled with care due to the volatile presence of RNases. It is one of the most fragile and delicate samples to extract. RNases, which digest RNA upon contact, are present nearly everywhere, such as in water, skin, and sometimes even the researcher’s breath.

BioChain uses proprietary isolation techniques to efficiently extract total RNA from tissues and cell lines, including difficult sample types such as cartilage. BioChain’s methods protect the RNA as it is being isolated and stored, so researchers can expect the highest quality possible for each sample type, with maximum downstream applications. Contamination by RNase, genomic DNA polysaccharides, and proteoglycans are effectively eliminated using its methods. For example, RIN values of >8* are achievable using BioChain’s extraction protocol. These extraction techniques have also been optimized to collect RNA of a wide array of sizes, including small RNAs such as miRNA, siRNA, snRNA, and piRNA. These small RNAs have become of great interest in cancer research due to their ability to regulate gene expression.

BioChain has a comprehensive collection of normal, diseased, and tumor tissues from a wide variety of species. Tissues come with detailed demographic and health information such as clinical diagnosis and age, and gel photos of the total RNA are included in datasheets. RIN scores are also frequently listed so you can be certain of your starting material when you begin a new project.

Total RNA is available frozen and is shipped on dry ice. For international customers, BioChain also offers room temperature RNA, which is merely total RNA that has been specially treated to be stable at ambient temperatures. Upon reconstitution, the product will be ready-to-use as total RNA.

*RIN values dependent on sample type.

Features

  • Extensive quality control procedures to ensure high quality
  • High efficiency reverse transcription
  • Decontamination of polysaccharide, proteoglycan, RNase, and genomic DNA
  • Total RNA isolated from a wide variety of hard to obtain tissues

Applications

  • cDNA synthesis and cDNA library construction
  • Purification of mRNA
  • MicroRNA study
  • Northern Blotting, RT-PCR, and RACE

Quality Control

Total RNA goes through rigorous quality control procedures to ensure the highest quality possible. The integrity of the total RNAs is confirmed by checking for a ratio of greater than 1:1 between 28s and 18s ribosomal RNA. BioChain provides consistent proof of the highest quality total RNA products. Its proprietary protocol result in products of high RIN value (Figure 1), and this can also be visualized using gel electrophoresis (Figure 2).

Figure 1. Total RNA from human normal adrenal tissue with RIN value of 9.5.
Figure 2. Obtain consistently high quality total RNA using BioChain’s proprietary extraction methods.
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BioChain Universal RNA

BioChain’s Universal RNAs have been specifically designed for use as a reference for microarray gene-profiling studies and other functional analyses. Universal RNAs are Total RNA controls derived from whole tissues sources. BioChain pools extracted Total RNA from a collection of high-quality regional tissue sources in order to provide the broadest coverage of genes. Its Universal RNA is also systematically prepared on an industrial scale to minimize lot-to-lot variation and insure the highest quality RNA. By using pooled RNA from whole tissues, one can get better gene representation, homogenous signal intensities across all genes, stable expression profiles, and high reproducibility between different lots.

Universal RNA enables the researcher to streamline their research projects by easily comparing microarray or real-time PCR data from different experiments. Universal Reference RNA is a prime avenue for constructing gene expression databases and for comparison of expression profiles from different tissues or cell lines.

Features

  • Broad gene coverage from diversified tissues
  • Industrial production scale to minimize lot-to-lot variation
  • Control for genomic DNA contamination implemented

Applications

  • Reference for array studies
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BioChain Matched Pair Total RNA

BioChain’s Matched Pair Total RNAs have been generated from human tumors and the corresponding normal tissues from the same donor. BioChain offers Primary Pair (PP), as well as Primary and Metastatic Pair (PM) products. Primary Pair Total RNAs are those that have been isolated from primary tumors and their adjacent unaffected normal tissue. Primary Metastatic Pair Total RNAs have been isolated from primary tumors and their corresponding metastatic tumors. Total RNA is isolated by modified guanidine thiocyanate techniques and stored in RNA storage buffer. This product is a useful tool for accelerating gene expression analysis by identifying tumor-specific genes and tumor metastatic genes.

Features

  • Total RNA isolated from tumor and normal tissues from the same patient
  • Decontamination of polysaccharide, proteoglycan, RNase, and genomic DNA
  • Extensive quality control procedures to ensure high quality
  • High efficiency reverse transcription
  • Documentation of tissues' clinical history is available

Applications

  • Northern Blotting, RT-PCR, and RACE
  • cDNA synthesis and cDNA library construction
  • cDNA probe for profiling study in gene expression
  • RNA protection and primer extension
  • RNA display
  • Purification of mRNA
  • Next Generation RNA Sequencing

Quality Control

  • The integrity of the RNA is examined by visual inspection for the presence of intact bands of 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA when electrophoreses on a denaturing agarose gel
  • The quality and purity of total RNA were tested by spectrophotometer. A260/280 is between 1.8 and 2.1 (detected in 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5).
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