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immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies.
TCR Screening Services
Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding.
Our non-GLP TCR services are designed on the FDA recommendation outlined in their "Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use".
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Unfortunately, the ELISA kit (ID:23310) is no longer available.
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VEGFA / VEGF
vascular endothelial growth factor A
VEGFA / VEGF is a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family and encodes a protein that is often found as a disulfide linked homodimer. This protein is a glycosylated mitogen that specifically acts on endothelial cells and has various effects, including mediating increased vascular permeability, inducing angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth, promoting cell migration, and inhibiting apoptosis. Elevated levels of this protein is linked to POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Mutations in this gene have been associated with proliferative and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding either freely secreted or cell-associated isoforms, have been characterized. There is also evidence for the use of non-AUG (CUG) translation initiation sites upstream of, and in-frame with the first AUG, leading to additional isoforms.
Vascular endothelial growth factor, wild-type p53, and angiogenesis in early operable non-small cell lung cancer. Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis MI, Kakolyris S, Turley H, O'Byrne K, Scott PA, Pezzella F, Georgoulias V, Harris AL, Gatter KC. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 1998 4:3017-24.
Expression of VEGF in routinely fixed material using a new monoclonal antibody VG1. Turley H, Scott PA, Watts VM, Bicknell R, Harris AL, Gatter KC. The Journal of pathology. 1998 186:313-8.
Assessment of vascular maturation in non-small cell lung cancer using a novel basement membrane component, LH39: correlation with p53 and angiogenic factor expression. Kakolyris S, Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis M, Leigh IM, Georgoulias V, Kanavaros P, Sivridis E, Gatter KC, Harris AL. Cancer research. 1999 59:5602-7.
Vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor and angiogenesis in non-small-cell lung cancer. O'Byrne KJ, Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Cox G, Turley H, Steward WP, Gatter K, Harris AL. British journal of cancer. 2000 82:1427-32.
Coexpression of MUC1 glycoprotein with multiple angiogenic factors in non-small cell lung cancer suggests coactivation of angiogenic and migration pathways. Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis MI, Sivridis E, O'Byrne K, Cox G, Thorpe PE, Gatter KC, Harris AL. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2000 6:1917-21.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in breast cancer: comparison of plasma, serum, and tissue VEGF and microvessel density and effects of tamoxifen. Adams J, Carder PJ, Downey S, Forbes MA, MacLennan K, Allgar V, Kaufman S, Hallam S, Bicknell R, Walker JJ, Cairnduff F, Selby PJ, Perren TJ, Lansdown M, Banks RE. Cancer research. 2000 60:2898-905.
Vascular endothelial growth factor/KDR activated microvessel density versus CD31 standard microvessel density in non-small cell lung cancer. Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Thorpe PE, Brekken RA, Sivridis E, Kakolyris S, Georgoulias V, Gatter KC, Harris AL. Cancer research. 2000 60:3088-95.
The 121 amino acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor is more strongly tumorigenic than other splice variants in vivo. Zhang HT, Scott PA, Morbidelli L, Peak S, Moore J, Turley H, Harris AL, Ziche M, Bicknell R. British journal of cancer. 2000 83:63-8.
Arterio-venous gradients of IL-6, plasma and serum VEGF and D-dimers in human cancer. Salgado R, Benoy I, Weytjens R, Van Bockstaele D, Van Marck E, Huget P, Hoylaerts M, Vermeulen P, Dirix LY. British journal of cancer. 2002 87:1437-44.
Hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha and 2alpha overexpression in inflammatory bowel disease. Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Maltezos E, Papazoglou D, Simopoulos C, Gatter KC, Harris AL, Koukourakis MI. Journal of clinical pathology. 2003 56:209-13.
DEC1 (STRA13) protein expression relates to hypoxia- inducible factor 1-alpha and carbonic anhydrase-9 overexpression in non-small cell lung cancer. Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis MI, Sivridis E, Turley H, Wykoff CC, Gatter KC, Harris AL. The Journal of pathology. 2003 200:222-8.
Vascular endothelial growth factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Kapsoritakis A, Sfiridaki A, Maltezos E, Simopoulos K, Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Koukourakis MI. International journal of colorectal disease. 2003 18:418-22.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in operable gallbladder carcinomas. Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis MI, Simopoulos C, Polychronidis A, Sivridis E. European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2003 29:879-83.
Microvascular density and hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in pancreatic endocrine tumours: negative correlation of microvascular density and VEGF expression with tumour progression. Couvelard A, O'Toole D, Turley H, Leek R, Sauvanet A, Degott C, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J, Harris AL, Gatter K, Pezzella F. British journal of cancer. 2005 92:94-101.
Increased angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in inflammatory versus noninflammatory breast cancer by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR gene expression quantification. Van der Auwera I, Van Laere SJ, Van den Eynden GG, Benoy I, van Dam P, Colpaert CG, Fox SB, Turley H, Harris AL, Van Marck EA, Vermeulen PB, Dirix LY. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2004 10:7965-71.
Positive feedback between vascular endothelial growth factor-A and autotaxin in ovarian cancer cells. Ptaszynska MM, Pendrak ML, Bandle RW, Stracke ML, Roberts DD. Molecular cancer research : MCR. 2008 6:352-63.
Correlation between clinical outcome and growth factor pathway expression in osteogenic sarcoma. Abdeen A, Chou AJ, Healey JH, Khanna C, Osborne TS, Hewitt SM, Kim M, Wang D, Moody K, Gorlick R. Cancer. 2009 115:5243-50. (IHC-P; Human)
A phase 1 dose escalation, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic evaluation of eIF-4E antisense oligonucleotide LY2275796 in patients with advanced cancer. Hong DS, Kurzrock R, Oh Y, Wheler J, Naing A, Brail L, Callies S, Andr V, Kadam SK, Nasir A, Holzer TR, Meric-Bernstam F, Fishman M, Simon G. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2011 17:6582-91.
ß-Cell regeneration mediated by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Milanesi A, Lee JW, Li Z, Da Sacco S, Villani V, Cervantes V, Perin L, Yu JS. PloS one. 2012 7:e42177. (ICC, IHC; Mouse)