Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is the main apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins (LDL). The protein occurs in the plasma in 2 main isoforms, apoB-48 and apoB-100. The first is synthesized exclusively by the gut, the second by the liver. The intestinal (B-48) and hepatic (B-100) forms of apoB are coded by a single gene and by a single mRNA transcript larger than 16 kb. The 2 proteins share a common amino terminal sequence. In the ApoB-100 isoform the precursor has 4563 amino acids, and the mature apoB-100 has 4536 amino acid residues. Mature, circulating B-48 is homologous over its entire length (estimated to be between 2130 and 2144 amino acid residues) with the amino-terminal portion of B-100 and contains no sequence from the carboxyl end of B-100. From structural studies, it is thought that apoB-48 represents the amino-terminal 47% of apoB-100 and that the carboxyl terminus of apoB-48 is in the vicinity of residue 2151 of apoB-100. Apolipoprotein B-48 may be the product of an intestinal mRNA with an in-frame UAA stop codon resulting from a C-to-U change in the codon CAA encoding Gln(2153) in apoB-100 mRNA. Since only the sequence that codes B-100 is present in genomic DNA, this presents the possibility of an organ-specific introduction of a stop codon to an mRNA and the change from CAA to UAA of codon 2153 of the message as a unique RNA editing process.
|Gene Name:||apolipoprotein B|
|Synonyms:||APOB, ApoB-100, Apolipoprotein B-48, ApoB-48, Apolipoprotein B, FLDB, LDLCQ4, Mutant Apo B 100, Apo B-100, Apolipoprotein B-100, Apolipoprotein B48|
|Target Sequences:||NM_000384 NP_000375.2 P04114|
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