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TCR Screening Services
Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding.
Our non-GLP TCR services are designed on the FDA recommendation outlined in their "Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use".
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Unfortunately, the antibody (ID:31982) is no longer available.
Below is a list of antibodies to the same protein target. You may also try your search again using the search box at the top of the page.
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INSR / Insulin Receptor
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (IRS1, 2, 3, 4), SHC, GAB1, CBL and other signaling intermediates. Each of these phosphorylated proteins serve as docking proteins for other signaling proteins that contain Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 domain) that specifically recognize different phosphotyrosines residues, including the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K and SHP2. Phosphorylation of IRSs proteins lead to the activation of two main signaling pathways: the PI3K-AKT/PKB pathway, which is responsible for most of the metabolic actions of insulin, and the Ras-MAPK pathway, which regulates expression of some genes and cooperates with the PI3K pathway to control cell growth and differentiation. Binding of the SH2 domains of PI3K to phosphotyrosines on IRS1 leads to the activation of PI3K and the generation of phosphatidylinositol-(3, 4, 5)-triphosphate (PIP3), a lipid second messenger, which activates several PIP3-dependent serine/threonine kinases, such as PDPK1 and subsequently AKT/PKB. The net effect of this pathway is to produce a translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 from cytoplasmic vesicles to the cell membrane to facilitate glucose transport. Moreover, upon insulin stimulation, activated AKT/PKB is responsible for: anti-apoptotic effect of insulin by inducing phosphorylation of BAD; regulates the expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes by controlling the activity of the winged helix or forkhead (FOX) class of transcription factors. Another pathway regulated by PI3K-AKT/PKB activation is mTORC1 signaling pathway which regulates cell growth and metabolism and integrates signals from insulin. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 thereby activating mTORC1 pathway. The Ras/RAF/MAP2K/MAPK pathway is mainly involved in mediating cell growth, survival and cellular differentiation of insulin. Phosphorylated IRS1 recruits GRB2/SOS complex, which triggers the activation of the Ras/RAF/MAP2K/MAPK pathway. In addition to binding insulin, the insulin receptor can bind insulin-like growth factors (IGFI and IGFII). Isoform Short has a higher affinity for IGFII binding. When present in a hybrid receptor with IGF1R, binds IGF1. PubMed:12138094 shows that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Long are activated with a high affinity by IGF1, with low affinity by IGF2 and not significantly activated by insulin, and that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Short are activated by IGF1, IGF2 and insulin. In contrast, PubMed:16831875 shows that hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Long and hybrid receptors composed of IGF1R and INSR isoform Short have similar binding characteristics, both bind IGF1 and have a low affinity for insulin.
, Insulin receptor
INSR, CD220, ILP receptor, Insulin receptor, IR, HHF5, CD220 antigen
Insulin receptor expression and function in human breast cancer cell lines. Milazzo G, Giorgino F, Damante G, Sung C, Stampfer MR, Vigneri R, Goldfine ID, Belfiore A. Cancer research. 1992 52:3924-30.
Effect of monoclonal antibodies on human insulin receptor autophosphorylation, negative cooperativity, and down-regulation. Forsayeth JR, Montemurro A, Maddux BA, DePirro R, Goldfine ID. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1987 262:4134-40. (IP; Human)
Insulin receptor monoclonal antibodies that mimic insulin action without activating tyrosine kinase. Hawley DM, Maddux BA, Patel RG, Wong KY, Mamula PW, Firestone GL, Brunetti A, Verspohl E, Goldfine ID. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1989 264:2438-44.
Monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor that activate glucose transport but not insulin receptor kinase activity. Forsayeth JR, Caro JF, Sinha MK, Maddux BA, Goldfine ID. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1987 84:3448-51.
Reevaluation of the evidence that an antibody to the insulin receptor is insulinmimetic without activating the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor. Gherzi R, Russell DS, Taylor SI, Rosen OM. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1987 262:16900-5.
Increased expression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I hybrid receptors in skeletal muscle of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. Federici M, Zucaro L, Porzio O, Massoud R, Borboni P, Lauro D, Sesti G. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1996 98:2887-93. (WB; Human)
Insulin receptor isoform A, a newly recognized, high-affinity insulin-like growth factor II receptor in fetal and cancer cells. Frasca F, Pandini G, Scalia P, Sciacca L, Mineo R, Costantino A, Goldfine ID, Belfiore A, Vigneri R. Molecular and cellular biology. 1999 19:3278-88. (WB, IP, ELISA; Human)
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor overexpression in breast cancers leads to insulin/IGF-I hybrid receptor overexpression: evidence for a second mechanism of IGF-I signaling. Pandini G, Vigneri R, Costantino A, Frasca F, Ippolito A, Fujita-Yamaguchi Y, Siddle K, Goldfine ID, Belfiore A. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 1999 5:1935-44.
Membrane glycoprotein PC-1 inhibition of insulin receptor function occurs via direct interaction with the receptor alpha-subunit. Maddux BA, Goldfine ID. Diabetes. 2000 49:13-9.
The Q allele variant (GLN121) of membrane glycoprotein PC-1 interacts with the insulin receptor and inhibits insulin signaling more effectively than the common K allele variant (LYS121). Costanzo BV, Trischitta V, Di Paola R, Spampinato D, Pizzuti A, Vigneri R, Frittitta L. Diabetes. 2001 50:831-6.
Small molecule insulin receptor activators potentiate insulin action in insulin-resistant cells. Li M, Youngren JF, Manchem VP, Kozlowski M, Zhang BB, Maddux BA, Goldfine ID. Diabetes. 2001 50:2323-8. (WB, ELISA; Human)
A novel autocrine loop involving IGF-II and the insulin receptor isoform-A stimulates growth of thyroid cancer. Vella V, Pandini G, Sciacca L, Mineo R, Vigneri R, Pezzino V, Belfiore A. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2002 87:245-54.
Insulin/insulin-like growth factor I hybrid receptors have different biological characteristics depending on the insulin receptor isoform involved. Pandini G, Frasca F, Mineo R, Sciacca L, Vigneri R, Belfiore A. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2002 277:39684-95.