BMP2 is a transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) superfamily protein that functions to induce bone and cartilage formation as well as osteoblast differentiation. It is involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and in cardiac cell differentiation. In the brain, BMP2 is involved in neuronal and astrocytic differentiation as part of neurogenesis and exerts effects on gap junction communication. BMP2 is potentially causative for the autosomal dominant disease fibrodysplasia (myositis) ossificans progressive. Recombinant BMP2 protein is also used to stimulate bone production in spinal fusion and other orthopedic procedures and sometimes in dentistry. In immunohistochemistry, BMP2 has secretory and cytoplasmic staining in tissues throughout the body. In developing bone, it has strongest staining in osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells including periosteal and perivascular cells, as well as hypertrophic and apoptotic chondrocytes.
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