Work with LifeSpan to design a custom immunohistochemistry to address your specific biological question. Outsource the entire localization process without having to
worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting
immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies.
TCR Screening Services
Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding.
Our non-GLP TCR services are designed on the FDA recommendation outlined in their "Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use".
Description: Quinolinic acid is an endogenous agonist at NMDA receptors that is generated through the metabolism of tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway. By overactivating NMDA receptors, quinolinic acid produces neurotoxicity, which has been implicated in certain neurodegenerative disorders. Quinolinic acid can also generate reactive oxygen species, has immunomodulatory actions, and promotes the formation of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins.
Quinolinic acid is supplied as a crystalline solid. A stock solution may be made by dissolving the quinolinic acid in the solvent of choice. Quinolinic acid is soluble in organic solvents such as DMSO and dimethyl formamide, which should be purged with an inert gas. The solubility of quinolinic acid in these solvents is approximately 16 mg/ml. Further dilutions of the stock solution into aqueous buffers or isotonic saline should be made prior to performing biological experiments. Ensure that the residual amount of organic solvent is insignificant, since organic solvents may have physiological effects at low concentrations. Organic solvent-free aqueous solutions of quinolinic acid can be prepared by directly dissolving the crystalline solid in aqueous buffers. The solubility of quinolinic acid in PBS, pH 7.2, is approximately 0.5 mg/ml. We do not recommend storing the aqueous solution for more than one day.
Heyes, M.P., Achim, C.L., Wiley, C.A., et al. Human microglia convert L-tryptophan into the neurotoxin quinolinic acid. Biochem. J. 320(2), 595-597 (1996).
Stone, T.W., Forrest, C.M., and Darlington, L.G. Kynurenine pathway inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection. FEBS J. 279(8), 1386-1397 (2012).
Santamaría, A., Santamaría, D., Díaz-Muñoz, M., et al. Effects of Nω-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. Toxicol. Lett. 93, 117-124 (1997).
Moffett, J.R., Espey, M.G., and Namboodiri, M.A.A. Antibodies to quinolinic acid and the determination of its cellular distribution within the rat immune system. Cell Tissue Res. 278, 461-469 (1994).
Stone, T.W., Stoy, N., and Darlington, L.G. An expanding range of targets for kynurenine metabolites of tryptophan. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 34(2), 136-143 (2013).