Work with LifeSpan to design a custom immunohistochemistry to address your specific biological question. Outsource the entire localization process without having to
worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting
immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies.
TCR Screening Services
Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding.
Our non-GLP TCR services are designed on the FDA recommendation outlined in their "Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use".
Description: Lithocholic acid is a secondary bile acid that has been shown to cause cholestasis in animal models and has also been implicated in carcinogenesis. It is produced from chenodeoxycholic acid by bacterial action in the colon and can be conjugated with glycine or taurine. Whereas in normal colonic epithelium lithocholic acid promotes apoptosis, it has been shown to suppress apoptosis in pre-malignant colonic epithelium in the presence of a carcinogen. Lithocholic acid can activate the pregnane X receptor and the vitamin D receptor, which may serve as a biological sensor to regulate lithocholic acid-induced toxicity.
Lithocholic acid is supplied as a crystalline solid. A stock solution may be made by dissolving the lithocholic acid in the solvent of choice. Lithocholic acid is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide (DMF), which should be purged with an inert gas. The solubility of lithocholic acid in ethanol and DMSO is approximately 20 mg/ml, and approximately 30 mg/ml in DMF. Lithocholic acid is sparingly soluble in aqueous buffers. For maximum solubility in aqueous buffers, lithocholic acid should first be dissolved in DMF and then diluted with the aqueous buffer of choice. Lithocholic acid has a solubility of approximately 0.5 mg/ml in a 1:1 solution of DMF:PBS (pH 7.2) using this method. We do not recommend storing the aqueous solution for more than one day.
Little, J.M., Zimniak, P., Shattuck, K.E., et al. Metabolism of lithocholic acid in the rat: Formation of lithocholic acid 3-O-glucuronide in vivo. J. Lipid. Res. 31(4), 615-622 (1990).
Makishima, M., Lu, T.T., Xie, W., et al. Vitamin D receptor as an intestinal bile acid sensor. Science 296, 1313-1316 (2002).
Kozoni, V., Tsioulias, G., Shiff, S., et al. The effect of lithocholic acid on proliferation and apoptosis during the early stages of colon carcinogenesis: Differential effect on apoptosis in the presence of a colon carcinogen. Carcinogenesis 21(5), 999-1005 (2000).
Staudinger, J.L., Goodwin, B., Jones, S.A., et al. The nuclear receptor PXR is a lithocholic acid sensor that protects against liver toxicity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98(6), 3369-3374 (2000).
Tan, K.P., Yang, M., and Ito, S. Activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2 like) factor 2 by toxic bile acids provokes adaptive defense responses to enhance cell survival at the emergence of oxidative stress. Mol. Pharmacol. 72(5), 1380-1390 (2007).