Work with LifeSpan to design a custom immunohistochemistry to address your specific biological question. Outsource the entire localization process without having to
worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting
immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies.
TCR Screening Services
Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding.
Our non-GLP TCR services are designed on the FDA recommendation outlined in their "Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use".
Description: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid signalling molecule formed by the hydrolysis of lysophosphatidyl choline by lysophospholipase D, also known as autotaxin (ATX). LPA signals through four different G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1/EDG-2, LPA2/EDG-4, LPA3/EDG-7, and LPA4/GPR23. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) by LPA has also been reported. Tetradecyl phosphonate is a pan-antagonist of lysophosphatidic acid 1 (LPA1), LPA2, and LPA3 receptors with IC50 values for inhibition of LPA-induced calcium mobilization of 10 µM, 5.5 µM, and 3.1 µM, respectively. At a concentration of 10 µM, tetradecyl phosphonate activates a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma reporter construct 4-fold compared to controls and partially inhibits autotaxin with an IC50 of approximately 3 µM.
Tetradecyl phosphonate is supplied as a crystalline solid. A stock solution may be made by dissolving the tetradecyl phosphonate in an organic solvent purged with an inert gas. Tetradecyl phosphonate is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The solubility of tetradecyl phosphonate in these solvents is approximately 30, 2, and 5 mg/ml, respectively. Tetradecyl phosphonate is sparingly soluble in aqueous buffers. For maximum solubility in aqueous buffers, tetradecyl phosphonate should first be dissolved in ethanol and then diluted with the aqueous buffer of choice. Tetradecyl phosphonate has a solubility of approximately 0.25 mg/ml in a 1:3 solution of ethanol:PBS (pH 7.2) using this method. We do not recommend storing the aqueous solution for more than one day.
Tokumura, A., Majima, E., Kariya, Y., et al. Identification of human lysophospholipase D, a lysophosphatidic acidproducing enzyme, as autotaxin, a multifunctional phosphodiesterase. J. Biol. Chem. 277(42), 39436-39442 (2002).
Chun, J., Goetzl, E.J., Hla, T., et al. International union of pharmacology. XXXIV. Lysophospholipid receptor nomenclature. Pharmacol. Rev. 54, 265-269 (2002).
Noguchi, K., Ishii, S., and Shimizu, T. Identification of p2y9/GPR23 as a novel G protein-coupled receptor for lysophosphatidic acid, structurally distant from the Edg family. J. Biol. Chem. 278(28), 25600-25606 (2003).
McIntyre, T.M., Pontsler, A.V., Silva, A.R., et al. Identification of an intracellular receptor for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA): LPA is a transcellular PPARγ agonist. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100(1), 131-136 (2003).
Durgam, G.G., Virag, T., Walker, M.D., et al. Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and biological evaluation of fatty alcohol phosphates as lysophosphatidic acid receptors ligands, activators of PPARγ, and inhibitors of autotaxin. J. Med. Chem. 48, 4919-4930 (2005).