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LSBio Immunohistochemistry Studies

LifeSpan provides high-quality, confidential, protein localization data through its immunohistochemistry services. Reseachers can outsource the entire localization process without having to worry about finding and characterizing target specific antibodies, sourcing and validating difficult-to-find tissues, and having the ability to interpret the resulting immunostaining in relation to complex human pathologies. Researchers can choose from a variety of standardized IHC services that are commonly requested (Service Packets), or work with LifeSpan to custom design a study plan that will address their particular biological question. All studies are conducted under R&D conditions, are confidential, and the results are proprietary to the customer.

IHC Study Plan
Learn more about our Standard IHC Service Packets
Learn more about our Custom Immunohistochemistry Services

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Custom Immunohistochemistry Services

All custom protein expression-profiling studies are confidential, are performed on a fee-for-service basis without royalties or milestone payments, and include the following:

Study Design: Each contract research study begins with a customer consultation to define the study goals, available resources, and the optimal scientific approach. LifeSpan has conducted thousands of localization studies for more than 100 companies worldwide, experience that can be applied to help ensure a successful study.
Antibody selection and validation: Antibodies can be provided by the client, purchased from a commercial resource, acquired from LifeSpan's antibody catalog or custom generated by LifeSpan.
Tissue selection and validation: Tissue specimens are selected that will best answer the biological question. Normal and diseased, frozen and formalin-fixed, human and non-human tissues can be supplied by the client, acquired from LifeSpan's extensive Tissue Bank, selected from LifeSpan's inventory of tissue microarrays, purchased from commercial vendors, or collected prospectively by LifeSpan for use in the study. LifeSpan also offers custom tissue microarray design. Prior to use in any study, all tissues are subjected to rigorous testing to ensure proper fixation, accurate diagnosis, and antigen validation.
Assay Optimization: Antibodies are initially tested in Phase I to ensure that they are working appropriately before being used to screen the selected test tissues in Phase II. This involves performing a serial dilution of the antibody to establish the optimal staining concentration. Optimizing antigen-retrieval conditions may also be necessary to improve the antibody's signal-to-noise ratio on tissue samples.
Immunohistochemistry: During Phase II testing, antibodies are used under the optimized assay conditions to immunolabel the selected tissues of interest. LifeSpan can use single or multiple antibodies to provide co-localization information. LifeSpan has extensive experience in double labeling and can recommend markers for differentiating specific cell types.
Interpretation: The resulting immunolabeled slides are interpreted by LifeSpan's staff of pathologists, who have many years experience interpreting the often complex behavior of antibodies in IHC. The cellular localization profile is then correlated with the normal and/or disease processes being evaluated.
Detailed Reporting: LifeSpan has a flexible report format that allows for customization depending upon the level of interpretation required. The two most common forms are Full Text and Tabular reporting.
Full Text Report Tabular Report
Example of a Full Text Report Example of a Tabular Report

Full-Text Reporting: With Full-Text Reporting, LifeSpan's pathologists describe the immunolocalization patterns in detail and provide 3-5 representative images for each tissue sample. This format is useful for studies that require detailed observations and interpretation, such as studies involving CNS tissues, co-localization studies, or those that may involve rare events and minor cell types. Information about each patient sample is also provided.

Sample Reports:
Full text report on Cardiovascular Disease
Full text report on Neurodegenerative Disease
Full text report with Double-labeling
Full text report on Cancer Tissues
Full text report on Inflammatory Disease

Tabular Reporting with and without Imaging: With Tabular Reporting, LifeSpan's pathologists quantify the signal present in major cell types within each tissue sample using a 0-4 scale and present the results in a table. This format is useful for studies at the initial stages of target characterization, screening studies, or those involving major cell types or in homogeneous tissues. Customers can choose to include selected images for each tissue sample.

Sample Report:
Tabular report on Cancer Tissues

Study Deliverables: Upon the conclusion of each study, LifeSpan will provide a report detailing the assay condition, the antibody dilution specifications, and localization results for each tissue specimen assayed. If available, selected patient information, including the age, sex, cause of death or surgery, is provided with each sample. LifeSpan offers a variety of reporting formats to meet the varied needs of our customers. Reports are delivered via a secure website and can also be delivered on CD.
Timeline: Standard IHC studies take from 3-12 weeks to complete, depending upon the complexity of the study. LifeSpan strives to complete our customers' work in an expeditious manner.
Cost: LifeSpan offers unparalleled quality and competitive pricing for its contract research services. Due to the variable nature of these studies, a custom price is quoted for each study.
Plan a Study: IHC Study Plan

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Standard IHC Service Packets

LifeSpan has designed the following service packets so that its customers can order commonly requested study plans quickly and easily. Just send us your antibodies and we’ll return the data! Each study can also be customized to include multiple antibodies, to combine tissue lists, or to specify the level of interpretation.

Each service packet includes the following:

  • Selection and IHC characterization of 1 client supplied antibody*
  • Delivery of an antibody characterization report
  • Antigen preservation testing of the LifeSpan supplied tissues with control antibodies
  • Verification of pathology and fixation quality of the LifeSpan supplied tissues
  • Immunolabeling of the LifeSpan supplied tissues with the 1 antibody
  • Appropriate study controls (secondary antibody without primary)
  • Interpretation of the immunolabeling by a LifeSpan pathologist
  • Delivery of a final localization report including digital images

* Commercial antibodies can also be supplied by LifeSpan at additional cost.

Available Service Packets:


Protein Expression in Normal Human Tissues

Normal tissue profiling is intended to provide information about what normal tissue and cell types express a protein.

Normal Tissue Profile I

Normal Tissue Profile II

Normal Tissue Profile III

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Protein Expression in Cancer

The following service packets are intended to provide information about which types of cancer express a protein, how that expression compares to the normal tissue state, and whether that expression differs within a patient population or as the disease progresses. Analysis is restricted to tumor cells within the cancer specimens (as opposed to tumor associated cell types such as blood vessel endothelial cells) and the corresponding progenitor cell types within the normal specimens.

General Cancer Profile I

General Cancer Profile II

General Cancer Profile III

General CAncer Profile IV

Cancer Population Profiles

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Protein Expression in Metabolic Disorders

The metabolic disorder profiles are intended to provide information about the differential expression of proteins within various normal tissues and those affected by a metabolic disorder.

Type II Diabetes Profile

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Protein Expression in Inflammatory Disease

The inflammatory disorder profiles are intended to provide information about the differential expression of proteins within various normal tissues and those affected by an inflammatory disease.

Asthma Profile

Crohn's Disease Profile

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Profile

Rheumatoid Arthritis and Emphysema Profile

Ulcerative Colitis Profile

Lupus Profile

Cellular Rejection Profile

Multiple Sclerosis Profile

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Differential Protein Expression Across Normal and Disease

Differential profiling is intended to establish if there is differential expression in cancers compared to the normal. These evaluations are conducted using full specimens rather than smaller specimen cores (like those used to make up tissue microarrays). Full specimens are necessary for the evaluation of more diffuse pathologies such as inflammatory disease and neurological disorders, as well as for the analysis of cancer related phenomena such as field effects, progression, apoptosis, and tumor-associated angiogenesis. 

Protein Expression

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Protein Expression in Non-Human Tissues

Normal tissue profiling is intended to provide information about what normal tissue and cell types express a protein across multiple species.

Non-Human Normal Tissue Profiles

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Protein Expression based upon FDA Recommendations

The following assembly of specimens is a formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) representation of the list of normal tissues recommended by the FDA for Tissue Cross-Reactivity (TCR) screening of therapeutic antibodies as outlined in their document “Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use.” A true TCR study is conducted using frozen specimens (see CR0037) and provides information about antibody binding. In contrast, this service packet is intended to provide valuable quick information about the distribution of target proteins across the same list of FDA recommended normal tissues at less cost than a full TCR screen.

FDA Normal Tissue Profile

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